Exploring group sociology
Mittelweg 36 1/2020
When a group experiment carried out by the Frankfurt School in the 1950s revealed Holocaust denialism, it was rejected on methodological grounds, writes historian Johannes Platz in ‘Mittelweg 36’. It was not until the 1960s that the concept of the group became central to ‘the formatting of the social’.
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Frankfurt School: Historian Johannes Platz looks at how the work of the Frankfurt School in the 1950s was influenced by US methodology. Adorno and Horkheimer realized that social attitudes could not be understood by simply aggregating individual opinions, but had to be analysed within a real social context – the ‘group experiment’.
One study of former Wehrmacht soldiers proved particularly controversial. Participants denied the extent of the Holocaust and argued that their own suffering served as compensation. The study drew much criticism from established academia and was quickly suppressed. Platz argues that Adorno and Horkheimer came up against a way of thinking inherited from National Socialism, which focussed wholly on individual psychology. Not till the 1960s would the value of group-oriented research be truly recognized.
Protest: Wolfgang Kraushaar recounts the case of Sahar Khodayari, the 29-year-old Iranian woman who in September 2019 set herself alight after receiving a prison sentence for trying to attend a football match. Kraushaar describes self-immolation as an act symbolizing the powerlessness of the individual and as a call for others to refuse to suffer tyranny in silence.
Despite the Iranian authorities’ attempt to suppress reports of Khodayari’s suicide, the story quickly spread on social media. The regime was forced into submission: in October, thanks to the ‘Blue Girl’, Iranian women were back in the stands for the first time in 37 years to watch their national side.
Published 7 April 2020
Original in English
Contributed by Mittelweg 36 © EurozinePDF/PRINT
How Russia has tipped the balance in Belarus
Since Putin’s demonstration of support for Lukashenka, time seems to be on the side of the Belarusian dictator. As long as he can rely on Kremlin backing, nothing short of a general strike will force him out, argues the Russian sociologist Lev Gudkov in interview with ‘Osteuropa’.
The nationalist opposition in Belarus has been marginalized, argues Coordination Council member Olga Shparaga. National heroes and vertical power structures no longer have popular appeal. The focus is instead on peaceful cooperation, social inclusion and the soft power of women.