José Casanova

professor of sociology at New School University, New York. He is the author of Public Religions in the Modern World (1994) and The Opus Dei and the Modernization of Spain (forthcoming).


The rapid and drastic process of secularization in western Europe over the last decades has not diminished the continuing unease with which Europe considers the Islamic religion and Muslims in its midst. In this benchmark essay from 2004, José Casanova argues that the “Islam problem” is an indicator of the disparity between liberal and illiberal strands of European secularism.

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