What could have happened had a local war for Lviv not drawn forces away from the Ukrainian revolution in 1918? Experimenting with counterfactual history allows us to reconsider simple questions and search for more precise answers.
Professor of history, Director of the Institute for Historical Research at the Lviv National University; visiting professor at Central European University, Budapest, and at Columbia University, New York. He is also a member of the New Eastern Europe editorial board. His publications include: Essays in Ukrainian History: the Making of a Modern Ukrainian Nation (in Ukrainian, 1996, 2000), History of Ukraine (in Polish, 2000).
Eastern Europe is a normal but second-hand Europe, writes the Ukrainian historian Yaroslav Hrytsak. All the people living there share European values – but these values were elaborated somewhere else.