Iris Marion Young


(1949-2006) was Professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago, and also worked in the fields of Gender Studies and Human Rights. Her research interests were in contemporary political theory, feminist social theory, and normative analysis of public policy.

Her books include Justice and the Politics of Difference (Princeton University Press, 1990), Throwing Like a Girl and Other Essays in Feminist Philosophy and Social Theory (Indiana University Press, 1990), Intersecting Voices: Dilemmas of Gender, Political Philosophy, and Policy (Princeton University Press, 1997), and Inclusion and Democracy (Oxford University Press, 2000). Her writings have been translated into several languages, including German, Italian, Spanish, and Swedish. She lectured widely in North America, Europe, Australia, and South Africa.


The authors of this essay question the statist response to the terrorist attacks of September 11 and offer some vision of how the United States and other global actors might have and can still conceive of their possibilities for action under a cosmopolitan vision of political responsibility. They argue that a different response to the attacks, based on the rule of law and international co-operation, could have been equally effective to combat terrorism in the long run, and could have also opened the way to a more just and stable world order.

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