Thomas de Waal

is a senior associate with Carnegie Europe, specialising in eastern Europe and the Caucasus region.


Cover for: Uncertain territory

Uncertain territory

The strange life and curious sustainability of de facto states

The international order has never been tidy or complete, always having had lands with contested sovereignty. The breakdown of empires is the most common catalyst for producing new aspirant states. The post-Soviet space is especially rich in these territories, as Thomas de Waal explains.

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