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Miloš Vec

I wanna hold your hand

Controversies over Muslims refusing to shake hands with non-Muslims are typical of the conflicts affecting today's multi-religious societies. Appeals to the law are not the answer: processes of social self-regulation need to take their course beyond formal authority, argues Miloš Vec. [ more ]

Adam Zagajewski

A defence of ardour

Shalini Randeria, Anna Wójcik

Mobilizing law for solidarity

Ira Katznelson, Agnieszka Rosner

Solidarity after Machiavelli

Camille Leprince, Lynn SK

Portraits of three women...

Eurozine Review

Eurozine Review

The destruction of society

'Osteuropa' rages at the destruction of Russian society; 'Merkur' delves into the history of Eurasianism; 'Vikerkaar' is sanguine about the decline of universalism; 'New Eastern Europe' has divided opinions about borders; 'Ord&Bild' finds humanism at sea; 'Il Mulino' debates the difficulties of democracy in Italy and the West; 'Blätter' seeks responses to the whitelash; 'Mittelweg 36' historicizes pop and protest; 'Critique & Humanism' looks at Bulgarian youth cultures; 'Res Publica Nowa' considers labour; and 'Varlik' examines the origins of literary modernism in Turkey.

Eurozine Review

The ordinary state of emergency

Eurozine Review

The Lilliput syndrome

Eurozine Review

The violent closet?

Eurozine Review

Peak democracy?

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Articles published in Eurozine

Adam Zagajewski

A defence of ardour

In honour of Adam Zagajewski receiving the Jean Améry Prize for European essay writing, we publish Zagajewski's defence of ardour. That is, true ardour, which doesn't divide but unifies; and leads neither to fanaticism nor to fundamentalism. [Lithuanian version added] [more]


Ana Hofman, Almantas Samalavicius

Neoliberalism and higher education in Central Europe

A conversation with ethnomusicologist Ana Hofman

Recent cuts in higher education spending fuels the commodification of knowledge, the precarization of academic work, and de-solidarization within the scienitific community. Slovenian ethnomusicologist Ana Hofman in conversation with the Lithuanian journal Kulturos barai. [more]


Henry Giroux, Almantas Samalavicius

Higher education and neoliberal temptation

A conversation with Henry Giroux

If the university is to survive, faculty are going to have to rethink their roles as public intellectuals, connect their scholarship to broader social issues and learn how to write for and speak to a broader public. Of this much, the cultural critic Henry Giroux is convinced. [more]


Jon Nixon, Almantas Samalavicius

Higher education and its discontents

A conversation with Jon Nixon

The audit culture resulting from neoliberal policies has had a deleterious effect on all sectors of society, and no less so on the universities, says higher education expert Jon Nixon. Clearly, the logic of austerity constitutes an existential threat to the great humanistic traditions of scholarship. [more]


Tomas Kavaliauskas, Ullrich Kockel

An enlightened localism

Ullrich Kockel in interview

In a wide-ranging discussion of European identity and regional separatisms, scholar of European ethnology Ullrich Kockel considers how competing memories need not lead to conflict but can be turned into a creative force through cultural engagement based on mutual respect. [more]


Ilija Trojanow

Security versus freedom: A misleading trade-off

In the wake of the technological revolution that is the Internet, writes Ilija Trojanow, principles of self-organization and collaboration might be expected to replace established hierarchies and concentrations of power. Instead, the technologies of surveillance now available to states have never been more intrusive. [Lithuanian version added] [more]


Simon Davies

Freedom through surveillance

Parading under the banner of a common front for freedom, governments worldwide have embarked on a security clampdown whose political fallout could be more damaging than the threat it seeks to banish, writes Simon Davies. [Lithuanian version added] [more]


Judith Vidal-Hall

Taking on the giant

When a group of claimants in the United Kingdom took on Google for invasion of privacy, they had little idea that the case would become a landmark in the fight to tame the Internet giant's intrusion into our lives on the Web, writes Judith Vidal-Hall. [Lithuanian version added] [more]


Sofi Oksanen

A lion in a cage

On the Finlandization of Europe

To safeguard its sovereignty after World War II, Finland did what it could to please the Soviet Union. The strategy now known as "Finlandization" haunts Europe today, writes Sofi Oksanen, as Russia focuses on expanding its sphere of influence. [more]


Beate Roessler

What is there to lose?

Privacy in offline and online friendships

Friendship enables us to relax the rules of privacy we need in other types of social relationship. When friendship goes online, however, controlling privacy becomes more problematic. Should this be cause for concern? Beate Roessler takes stock. [Lithuanian version added] [more]


Donatien Grau

Why the first martyrs weren't performance artists

The performance art of the 1960s and '70s transformed acting into religion: pain, blood and semen – they were doing it for real, writes Donatien Grau. The younger generation of performance artists are rejecting this heritage: their return to narrative is a way out of the mind-body dualism. [Lithuanian version added] [more]


Bronislovas Kuzmickas

From a distance

Postmodern identity in an increasingly postmodern reality

Why is it that, 25 years after independence, the attachment that Lithuanian citizens once felt to their country has weakened considerably? Because postmodernist self-consciousness prefers regional identity to state identity? Bronislovas Kuzmickas reports. [more]


Almantas Samalavicius, Sajay Samuel

Notes from a technoscape

A conversation with Sajay Samuel

Why is it that those in power cannot think outside the categories of economics and techno-science when faced with the spectre of widespread joblessness and natural disasters caused by an excessive reliance on techno-science? Sajay Samuel says it's time to stop and reflect. [more]


Warren Karlenzig, Almantas Samalavicius

Winds of urban change

A conversation with Warren Karlenzig

From the rewilding of London's Upper Lea Valley to performance indicator software to manage 663 of China's largest cities, Warren Karlenzig knows more than most about urban sustainability projects. Yet he's never been as daunted as now by the unfathomable scale of today's cities. [more]


Richard Heinberg, Almantas Samalavicius

Boom or bust time for critical thinking?

A conversation with Richard Heinberg

Following the massive bailouts, stimulus spending and quantitative easing of recent years, everyone breathed a sigh of relief and went back to sleep, says Richard Heinberg. But the coming global energy crisis will likely provide the jolt that wakes everyone up again. [more]


Arthur W Hunt III, Almantas Samalavicius

Technology and consumership

A conversation with Arthur W. Hunt III

Today's media, combined with the latest portable devices, have pushed serious public discourse into the background and hauled triviality to the fore, according to media theorist Arthur W Hunt. And the Jeffersonian notion of citizenship has given way to modern consumership. [more]


Antanas Sileika

Long ago and far away: Big stories from small countries

Baltic stories in a global context

What's different about a place is what's interesting, writes Canadian novelist Antanas Sileika. A proposition that raises all manner of difficulties, as well as presenting unique opportunities, when writing fiction based on Baltic history aimed at a North American audience. [more]


Tomas Kavaliauskas, Tatiana Zhurzhenko

Post-Orange Ukraine: Lost years?

A conversation with Tatiana Zhurzhenko

In an interview conducted before Euromaidan commenced, Tatiana Zhurzhenko discusses the intricacies of regional tensions surrounding Ukraine, taking into consideration questions of memory, language and a putative civic, liberal Ukrainian nationalism. [more]


Bo Isenberg

Critique and crisis

Reinhart Koselleck's thesis of the genesis of modernity

The modern consciousness as crisis: Reinhart Koselleck's study of the origins of critique in the Enlightenment and its role in the revolutionary developments of the late eighteenth century is a work of historical hermeneutics whose relevance remains undiminished. [Russian version added] [more]


Nicholas Bradbury, Almantas Samalavicius

The freedom of the fox in the chicken run

A conversation with novelist Nicholas Bradbury

Nicholas Bradbury made his literary debut this year with the novel "Market Farm", a reworking of George Orwell's "Animal Farm" for the free market era. He talks here about influences for his satirical take on the current financial crisis and potential grounds for hope for the future. [more]


Thomas Docherty

Research by numbers

Higher education cuts in the UK are hijacking the pursuit of knowledge. The perception has become entrenched that the role of academics is to serve business and do whatever the government decides is necessary for the economy, writes Thomas Docherty. [more]


Norman Lillegard, Almantas Samalavicius

Ideology or truth?

A conversation with Norman Lillegard

In a wide-ranging discussion, Almantas Samalavicius and the philsopher Norman Lillegard consider the dangers of relativism, the crisis of education, pleonexia and the economic crisis, and whether literature should provide moral instruction. [Lithuanian version added] [more]


Joshua Farley, Almantas Samalavicius

Against growth

A conversation with economist Joshua Farley

Given the relation between economic production and ecological degradation, Joshua Farley is convinced that economic growth must stop. It is just a question of when. And whether cooperation will displace competition as the dominant concept in the economic paradigm.[Lithuanian version added] [more]


Almantas Samalavicius, Immanuel Wallerstein

New world-system?

A conversation with Immanuel Wallerstein

At some point, there is a tilt; there always is. Then we shall settle down into our new historical system. Wallerstein foresees one of two possibilities: more hierarchy, exploitation and polarization; or a system that has never yet existed, based on relative democracy and equality. [Russian version added] [more]


Béla Nóvé

The Orphans of '56

Hungarian child refugees and their stories

Of the 200,000 Hungarian refugees who fled Hungary following the Soviet invasion in 1956, close to 20,000 were "unaccompanied minors". Shortly after the fifty-sixth anniversary of the Hungarian Revolution, historian and former dissident Béla Nóvé traces their life stories. [Polish version added] [more]


Molly Scott Cato, Almantas Samalavicius

Flourishing within limits

A conversation with green economist Molly Scott Cato

Molly Scott Cato is willing to acknowledge the extraordinary advances that economic growth has brought. However, she insists that only by learning to flourish within limits can we hope to regain our sense of the good life. [more]


John B. Cobb, Almantas Samalavicius

Beyond contemporary economic thinking

A conversation with John B. Cobb

John B. Cobb, Methodist theologian and longstanding critic of the of the political-economic establishment, talks about his communitarian and ecology-based critique of neoliberalism and the potential for world religions to inform an alternative. [more]


James Robertson, Almantas Samalavicius

Future money

A conversation with James Robertson

Understanding the need to combine economics and ethics amounts to a "Copernican revolution", says the co-founder of the New Economics Foundation. The survival of our species depends on our making the money system work in ways that will "enable and conserve". [more]


Mark Anielski, Almantas Samalavicius

The pursuit of happiness

A conversation with economist Mark Anielski

The global debt crisis is encouraging economists and others to explore alternative ways of measuring national wealth. In conversation with Almantas Samalavicius, Mark Anielski discusses the possibility of an economic system based on wellbeing rather than unlimited growth. [more]


Claus Leggewie

Continuities denied

Explaining Europe's reluctance to remember migration

Why does Europe find it so difficult to remember the facts of migration, both voluntary and forced? Reluctance to address the more noxious aspects of collective European identity impedes engagement with migration history, argues Claus Leggewie. Swedish version added [more]


Bob Massie, Almantas Samalavicius

Economics, sustainability and the legacy of E.F. Schumacher

An interview with Bob Massie

American priest, politician and social activist Bob Massie talks about how the ideas of Ernst Friedrich Schumacher can inform a transition to an alternative economy and why the author of "Small is Beautiful" still has something to say to a secularized, European audience. [more]


Tom Van Imschoot

Literary perspectives: Flanders


In the last decade, Flemish fiction has stepped out of the shadow of its Dutch older sister, writes Tom Van Imschoot. One discernable trend is the turn from metafiction towards various forms of realism, be it the regional, the semi-autobiographical or the "virtual". [more]


Daniel Chirot, Almantas Samalavicius

Ideology never ends

An interview with sociologist Daniel Chirot

While some eastern European countries have shaken off the "post-communist" tag, in others it remains apt, says Daniel Chirot. Meanwhile, new disparities are generating a leftwing revival in the region that show pronouncements of the end of ideology to have been rash.[Hungarian version added] [more]


Gerard Delanty, Almantas Samalavicius

Shifting shapes of Europe

Sociologist Gerard Delanty revisits his 1995 book "Inventing Europe", talking about the possibilities of post-national citizenship, Europe's complex Christian identity, and why accounts of Europe today must include the heritage of the peripheries. [more]


Boris Kapustin, Tomas Kavaliauskas

In search of a post-communist future

How was it possible in too many post-communist countries that incredible riches accumulated in the hands of the parasitic few? Why is political power so often fused with wealth? Two philosophers search for an answer as to what went wrong in the post-communist world after 1989. [more]


Anna Karpenko

Kaliningrad's architectural heritage: An insider's view

What is the threat implied in the handover of the symbolically significant architectural heritage of the Kaliningrad region to the Orthodox Church of Russia? Local historian Anna Karpenko examines the social and cultural aspects of the conflict. [more]


Daniel Daianu

Markets and society

When high finance cripples the economy and corrodes democracy

The current financial crisis is not confined to economies, writes former Romanian finance minister Daniel Daianu. The erosion of the middle class, the spread of extremism and the threat to democracy are some of the more obvious social effects demanding attention. [more]


Aleida Assmann

Here am I, where are you?

Loneliness in the era of communication

The Internet has abolished loneliness, or rather got rid of its negative effects to a hitherto unimagined degree, writes Aleida Assmann. Borders between sociability and loneliness are shifting and the pressure of social conformity lessens as computer nerds turn into savvy heroes. [more]


Boaventura de Sousa Santos

The university in the twenty-first century

Towards a democratic and emancipatory university reform

Universities can regain their legitimacy only through radical democratic restructuring. Countering the brain-drain -- so far the main result of the transnationalization of education -- will only be possible by embarking on a counter-hegemonic process of educational globalization. [more]


Georg Franck

Celebrities: The new cultural elite?

Attention is the currency of the new media, which like any other asset is profitable only when possessed in sufficient quantity, writes Georg Franck. There is nothing democratic about celebrity culture, where the media have the sole power to appoint the new elite. [more]


Violeta Davoliute, Ugur Ümit Üngör


An interview with historian Ugur Ümit Üngör

The comparison of genocides is neither a crude equation nor an equivalence of evil, argues historian Ugur Ümit Üngör. Rather, comparative study enhances understanding of individual cases and counters political manipulation of genocide under hierarchies of uniqueness. [more]


Vasilijus Safronovas

Rewriting history in Kaliningrad: Facts on the ground

Why is the Orthodox Church of Russia reclaiming the castles and churches in the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad, appropriated in 1917? The question is posed by a Lithuanian "outsider" in the light of recent changes in the ownership of important heritage sites in Kaliningrad. [more]


Carl Rowlands

Europe's periphery

The decimation of indigenous industry in central and eastern Europe has created a low-wage hinterland on the fringes of the highly developed core, writes Carl Rowlands. If the societies of central-eastern Europe are indeed in transition, it is unclear what the destination will be. [more]


Almantas Samalavicius

The vanishing genius loci of Vilnius

Vilnius's Baroque and Gothic urban heritage was once a rallying point for Lithuania's independence movement following the architectural ravages of Soviet modernism. Now it is subject to a new onslaught from local finance capital -- and no one seems to care. [more]


Dalia Leinarte

On emotions

The correspondence between Algirdas Julius Greimas and Aleksandra Kasuba, 1988-1992

The sociologist Zygmunt Bauman finds unstable families a threat to society. Anthony Giddens opens for negotiation and change. Dalia Leinarte finds Giddens more in keeping with the times and uses the correspondence between two Lithuanian intellectuals to illustrate her point. [more]


Daniel Miller

On the post-city

As global megacities render the urban grid and its certainties obsolete, societies of discipline become societies of control. Daniel Miller cracks open the password protected "post-city". [more]


Ivaylo Ditchev, Tomas Kavaliauskas

Territory, identity, transformation

A Baltic-Balkan comparison

Lithuania and Bulgaria: subjected to neoliberal forces of disintegration, territorial identities in the regulated zone of market democracy that is new Europe re-pattern along altered lines of conflict. Ivaylo Ditchev and Tomas Kavaliauskas share Baltic-Balkan perspectives on the present. [more]


Ioana Bot

European university reform

Ten propositions in search of an answer

What in the US has been a tradition of collaboration between universities and prosperous private business, in Europe risks turning into an acceptance of the dictates of the economy. On the "entrepreneurial university" and other myths of Bologna. [more]


Béla Nóvé

Talking about censorship and the lost world of samizdat

In 1980s Hungary, as in the USSR and other communist ruled countries, censorship and opposition to it was a crucial issue. A onetime dissident turned historian recalls the passionate debates at the time and establishes their continuing relevance in the post-Wall world. [more]


Richard Münch

Bologna, or The capitalization of education

The German protests against the Bologna Process are the last opposition to what amounts to a cultural revolution, writes Richard Münch. The result of the exposure of German universities to purely economic demands will be an increasing hierarchization of educational institutions. [Spanish version added] [more]


Marion von Osten

The Bologna paradox

On the contradictions in the implementation of the Bologna Criteria

The Bologna Process is typical of a new dynamic of inclusion and exclusion in post-national Europe. Not only must the assumption be challenged that access to knowledge can be controlled via monetization, the reforms must also be placed in the context of Europe's selective border regime. [more]


Almantas Samalavicius

Lithuania: Universities on the threshold

A blind drive towards utility characterizes higher education policy in Lithuania. The only remedy on offer for the ongoing brain-drain is based on the logic of the market. Lithuanian universities are steadily going the way of the rest of "common property" after independence. [more]


Rita Repsiene

In pursuit of the goddess

How one woman defied the odds to restore the feminist principle

Lithuanian-American archeologist Marija Gimbutas revolutionized ideas of "Old Europe" and reinstated the Great Goddess in her rightful place before the onslaught of the Indo-European male ascendancy dethroned her and left women mere consorts and companions. [more]


Ewa Hess, Hennric Jokeit


The fear of depression, dementia and attention deficit disorder legitimizes the boom in neuro-psychotropic drugs. In a performance-driven society that confronts the self with its own shortcomings, neuroscience serves an expanding market. [more]


Violeta Davoliute

History and politics between Left and Right, East and West

Have fears about an upsurge of ultra-nationalism in eastern Europe brought the era of democratic idealism to an end? Opposition to last year's Prague Declaration on "European Conscience and Totalitarianism" reveals changing attitudes, writes Violeta Davoliute. [more]


Andrea Zlatar

Literary perspectives: Croatia

Post-traumatic stress disorder

A new generation of post-feminist writers in Croatia has emerged in the crossover between literature and journalism. Common to much new Croatian writing is the postwar experience, with authors using marginal characters to explore tensions between individual and society. [more]


Almantas Samalavicius

Literary perspectives: Lithuania

Almost normal

The literary field in Lithuania has established itself since independence, despite vastly smaller print runs. Today, a range of literary approaches can be made out, from the social criticism of the middle generation to the more private narratives of the post-Soviet writers. [more]


Andreas Harbsmeier

Literary perspectives: Denmark

The contemporary literary reservation

Committed, critical writing in Denmark is emerging from its sheltered existence in a literary reservation, in doing so collapsing the boundaries between the literary field and the broader public sphere, writes Andreas Harbsmeier. [more]


Heribert Prantl

Are newspapers still relevant?

It is not the Internet that is responsible for the "crisis of the press", but subordination of journalism to the market, writes the political editor of the "Süddeutsche Zeitung". For the first time since 1945, German journalism risks becoming trivialized. [more]


Claus Leggewie

Battlefield Europe

Transnational commemoration and European identity

A pan-European memory cannot be reduced to the Holocaust and the Gulag alone, no matter how central these are, and must be able to compare memories without offsetting each against the other. On the "concentric circles" of European memory. [more]


Kazys Varnelis

The meaning of network culture

As digital computing meshes with mobile networking technology, society is undergoing a cultural shift. In postmodernism, being was left in a fabric of intensities; today, the self is affirmed through the net. What does this mean for the democratic public sphere? [more]


Marci Shore

Legacies of "Judeo-Bolshevism"

Scenes from post-communist Poland

For young Polish Jews, many of whom reappropriated their Jewish identity after 1989, the historical injury of the Holocaust is often complicated by their grandparents' participation in the communist project. [more]


Zinovy Zinik

History thieves

Thirty years after leaving Russia for Israel, an "unheimliche" experience in Berlin led Zinovy Zinik to investigate the chequered past of his Russian-born grandfather. An autobiographical exploration of "assumed identity" in twentieth-century Jewish experience. [more]


Tomas Kavaliauskas

Salvation fantasies

No one in eastern central Europe suspected that once the fight for independence was won, democracy would become a parody of itself, writes Tomas Kavaliauskas. Open disrespect for the public jars with the ideals of the Baltic Way that existed before and after 1989. [more]


Rasa Balockaite

"Go West..."

Myths of femininity and feminist utopias in East and West

Working illegally in the West, eastern European women take care of "the logistics of bodily experience", freeing western women to participate alongside men in business, science and politics. [more]


Timothy Snyder

Holocaust: The ignored reality

Auschwitz and the Gulag are generally taken to be adequate or even final symbols of the evil of mass slaughter. But they are only the beginning of knowledge, a hint of the true reckoning with the past still to come, writes Timothy Snyder. [more]


Eurozine News Item

Eurozine conference held in Vilnius

22nd European Meeting of Cultural Journals, 8-11 May 2009

The 22nd European Meeting of Cultural Journals was a resounding success, with over eighty representatives of cultural journals from Iceland to Bosnia, Ireland to Belarus meeting in Vilnius to discuss the subject of "European Histories". It is not often that participants of such events say that it caused them to re-adjust their world-view, yet this is what some have claimed. [more]


Martin M. Simecka

Still not free

Why post-'89 history must go beyond self-diagnosis

The dissident generation of the 1970s and 1980s produced a body of work unprecedented in Czech history, says Martin Simecka. Yet it is precisely the monumentality of this generation's legacy that prevents the interpretation of the communist past going beyond self-diagnosis. [more]


Tatiana Zhurzhenko

The geopolitics of memory

The controversy around the statue of the Soviet soldier in Tallinn in April 2007 provided a striking demonstration that memory politics is less about the communist past than about future political and economic hegemony on the European continent. [Swedish version added] [more]


Timothy Snyder

Balancing the books

Sixty years and more since the end of WWII, eastern European experiences of subjugation are often glossed over. This creates misunderstandings that could be avoided by an awareness of a common European history. Then, solidarity rather than national prejudice would motivate public opinion on matters of European politics. [more]


Isolde Charim

Historical myths new and old

Surrounding the sixtieth anniversary of WWII were arguments that the suffering of eastern Europe goes unacknowledged. By implication, the memory of the Holocaust is a hegemonic discourse within the EU, rather than its binding principle. Here, a new myth is in the making: victimhood divorced from political context. [more]


Vaidas Jauniskis

The flood of festivals

Illness, cure, everyday life

For those who existed behind the Iron Curtain, it was hard even to imagine arts festivals, writes Vaidas Jauniskis. But over the past two decades, festivals have flooded eastern Europe as if they were the new religion. [more]


Karl Schlögel

Places and strata of memory

Approaches to eastern Europe

The idea of 1989 as an annus mirabilis is too crude; rather, it was the result of a long incubation period that took a different course in each Eastern Bloc country. Karl Schlögel asks whether it is too soon to start talking of a "common European history". [more]


Jonas Thente

Literary perspectives: Sweden

Beyond crime fiction, handbags and designer suits

Recent literary debates in Sweden have dwelled, among things, on authors' love lives and penchant for designer handbags. Yet there is more out there if one looks: Hans Koppel's satire of suburban manners, for example, or Magnus Hedlund's explorations of human perception. [more]


Matt McGuire

Literary perspectives: Northern Ireland

Shaking the hand of history

While the Northern Irish literary tradition is closely bound up with the experience of sectarian violence, contemporary Northern Irish writing defies the assumption that "the Troubles" are all there is to the country's literature. [more]


Milla Mineva

Made in Bulgaria

The national as advertising repertoire

In Bulgarian political discourse, to talk of the nation means to talk non-politically. Advertising makes visible this depoliticization of the national. [more]


Ales Steger

Literary perspectives: Slovenia

A hollowed-out generation

Slovenian novelists are developing original responses to the experience of post-communist society, writes Ales Steger. While male novelists take a hyper-realist, social-critical approach, their female counterparts are creating fictions only loosely connected to contemporary time and space. [more]


Romualdas Ozolas

From unidimensional to multidimensional thinking

The European tradition of abstract thought as mastered by Kant must show the way in thinking about the State, argues Romualdas Ozolas, a founder of the Lithuanian Sajudis movement. [more]


Elemér Hankiss

Doom and gloom

Asked how they see their country ten years from now, only a third of Hungarians say that it will be a successful European country. "Hungary's political elite, its intellectuals and its media bear enormous responsibility for this negativity," writes Elemér Hankiss. [more]


Daniela Strigl

Literary perspectives: Austria

Anything but a "German appendix"

Austrian novelists are still referred to as Germans despite recent critical and commercial success. From the new narrative "miracle" to the darkly humorous "writer's novel", Daniela Strigl finds a contemporary Austrian scene at the top of its game. [more]


Gábor Csordás

Literary perspectives: Hungary

Mastering history through narrative?

Gábor Csordás reads the newest Hungarian novels, that all share a concern with narrative, holding out to the reader the hope of mastering history. [more]


Tomas Kiauka

Death and the resurrection of God

Thoughts on the legacy of Dietrich Bonhoeffer

"In the Western-Christian European space, the twentieth century can be called the century of 'death' and the 'resurrection of God'." A special role was played by the Protestant theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer, who provided a critical response to the question of Christ. Tomas Kiauka reconstructs the consistency of his thought. [more]


Béla Egyed

"Why Nietzsche today"

Despite the major criticisms to be made of Nietzsche's philosophy, his writing on morality and politics continues to raise important issues, writes Bela Egyed in an introduction to a series of texts first published in Kritika&Kontext. [more]


Margot Dijkgraaf

Literary perspectives: The Netherlands

"Profound Holland" and the new Dutch

While the work of novelists Jan Siebelink and Arnon Grunberg reflect the new need for security in the Netherlands, a parallel strand of contemporary Dutch literature sidesteps such concerns: writers with migrant backgrounds are introducing new styles into the Dutch literary repertoire. [more]


Tomas Kavaliauskas

The non-efficient citizen

Identity and consumerist morality

Consumerism grounded in indebtedness means financial dependence as opposed to democratic freedom. In the consumerist system, the individual who asserts him or herself through authentic freedom is regarded as a non-efficient citizen. [more]


Ivaylo Ditchev

Mobile citizenship?

The "new mobility" implies new freedoms as well as new privations. The biographies of Bulgarian migrants reveal how the horizon of departure has become a basic dimension of the world. Mobility, writes Ivaylo Ditchev, will need to be taken more seriously in the anthropology of citizenship. [more]


Béla Egyed

Nietzsche's anti-democratic liberalism

A Nietzschean politics is less a critique of political events so much as a diagnosis of the forces and tendencies driving them -- and therein lies its liberalism, writes Béla Egyed. [more]


György Tatar

The heaviest burden

Nietzsche and the death of God

Nietzsche's response to having lost faith, but not being able to live without it, was to invent the figure of a new creator -- someone who could bring together Man and World once again. In order to do this, man had to begin to think through his own existence: the heaviest burden of all. [more]


Antony Todorov

National populism versus democracy

Given the failure of the leftist projects of the twentieth century, it is telling that far-right populism is more anti-democratic in the new democracies of eastern Europe than in the West, writes Antony Todorov. Is populism identical to the crisis of democracy or rather a symptom of it? [more]


Almantas Samalavicius

An amorphous society

Lithuania in the era of high post-communism

"High post-communism" in eastern Europe is defined by efforts to control collective memory, political discourse dominated by abstract concepts, and the cult of entertainment -- a view from Lithuania. [more]


Tymofiy Havryliv

Literary perspectives: Ukraine

Longing for the novel

In Ukraine, the demand for engagement with the recent past has produced a series of novels that are better described as autobiographies. But, asks Timofiy Havryliv, is autobiography equal to the task? [more]


Carl Henrik Fredriksson

The re-transnationalization of literary criticism

Critical discussion of foreign literature serves as a source of information not only for readers but also for the "trade". When that discussion disappears or becomes one-sided, this has consequences for the literary institution as a whole. [more]


Märt Väljataga

Literary perspectives: Estonia

Waiting for the Great Estonian Novel

While the Great Estonian Novel has yet to be written, the range of fiction in Estonia is wide enough to serve as an indicator of the post-communist country's hopes and fears, anxieties and obsessions. writes the editor of "Vikerkaar". [more]


Rasa Balockaite

Between mimesis and non-existence

Lithuania in Europe, Europe in Lithuania

Cultural and political life in Lithuania is marked by what Homi K. Bhabha, speaking of postcolonial nations, called "ironic compromise". The Lithuanian is "almost a European but not quite". [more]


Anette Baldauf

Shopping town USA

Victor Gruen, the Cold War, and the shopping mall

Victor Gruen's "shopping towns" were supposed to strengthen civic life and alleviate women's lives. But within a decade they had become the architectural expression of the policy of gender segregation underlying the US postwar consumer utopia. [more]


Skaidra Trilupaityte

Global museums in the twenty-first century

The Guggenheim foundation and the rhetoric of cultural planning in Vilnius

The fact that a Guggenheim museum is being planned for Vilnius is indicative of the conviction that "de-provincialization" can only be achieved by taking part in global projects. Meanwhile, the cultural demands of the local population go unheeded. [more]


Peter Bergmann, Teodor Münz, Frantisek Novosád, Paul Patton, Richard Rorty, Jan Sokol, Leslie Paul Thiele

What does Nietzsche mean to philosophers today?

Excessively sensitive, anti-liberal, and irrelevant, or radical, prescient, and misunderstood? Six philosophers answer Kritika&Kontext's questions on Nietzsche. Their responses make one thing clear: Nietzsche still divides opinion. [more]


Ivan Krastev

The populist moment

Unlike the extremist parties of the 1930s, the new populist movements do not aim to abolish democracy: quite the opposite, writes Ivan Krastev. What we are witnessing is a conflict between elites suspicious of democracy and increasingly illiberal publics. [more]


André Schiffrin

Controlling words

Press and publishing concentration in France is exceptionally high yet there is barely any protest from within the sector itself. Media monopolization is by no means only a French issue, however: throughout Europe and the US, profit has become publishing's bottom line. [more]


Robert Misik

Simulated cities, sedated living

The shopping mall as paradigmatic site of lifestyle capitalism

If the imperative of consumer capitalism is "lead us into temptation", then the shopping mall is its cathedral. Increasingly, city centres -- or "brand zones" -- are adopting the mall aesthetic. [more]


Jérôme Sgard

Nicolas Sarkozy, Gramsci reader

New power and the temptation of hegemony

Nicolas Sarkozy has professed admiration for the Gramscian notion of "cultural hegemony" -- political domination via domination of ideas. The difference is that Sarkozy seeks hegemony not over ideas so much as values. [more]


Svetoslav Malinov

Radical demophilia

Reflections on Bulgarian populism

Populism in Bulgaria feeds off two phenomena: a pure hatred of political parties and the constant emphasis in the public discourse on an alleged contrast between ordinary people and the political elite. [more]


José Casanova

Religion, European secular identities and European integration

The rapid secularization of western Europe has not diminished the unease with which Europe considers Islam in its midst. In this benchmark essay, José Casanova argues that the "Islam problem" is an indicator of the disparity between liberal and illiberal strands of European secularism. [more]


Elemér Hankiss

Transition or transitions?

The transformation of eastern central Europe 1989-2007

"Incomplete regime change", "interrupted revolution", "geo-political paradigm shift"... Accounts of the transition in eastern central Europe have tended to emphasize particular features to the exclusion of others. Elemér Hankiss pieces together a mosaic of interpretations of transition. [more]


Slavenka Drakulic

Bathroom tales

How we mistook normality for paradise

The shortage of toilet paper alone may not have brought down communism, but it's an apt metaphor for a system unable to fulfil people's basic needs. Although Slavenka Drakulic's bathroom is better stocked these days, she's still prone to doubt. Was the normality she and her fellow eastern Europeans longed for just another false paradise? [more]


Rainer Bauböck

Who are the citizens of Europe?

Current citizenship laws in the European Union vary dramatically. The tension between freedom of movement and national legislation on citizenship has the potential to create serious conflicts, writes Rainer Bauböck. [more]


Audrius Dauksa

On paradoxes, principles, and illusions

"The self-regulating market", "democratic capitalism"... Audrius Dauksa is not convinced. The gap between rhetoric and reality is plain to see: so why aren't politicians looking? [more]


Siegfried Kohlhammer

The cultural bases for economic success

Why are there rich and poor countries? The relative prosperity of immigrant groups internationally suggests that it isn't geography, climate, or economic policy that decides the success of a country, but culture. [more]


Pierre Nora

Reasons for the current upsurge in memory

Over the past quarter century, social structures have undergone a sea change in their traditional relationship to the past. Pierre Nora examines the roots and causes of "memorialism". [Italian version added] [more]


Jan Philipp Reemtsma

Must we respect religiosity?

On questions of faith and the pride of the secular society

Secular society's "supermarket of faiths" principle appears from a religious standpoint to be indifferent and mistaken. On the basis for the respect between believer and non-believer that can prevent this tension becoming intolerance. [more]


Adam Phillips

The forgetting museum

It seems self-evident that commemoration averts recurrence of that which is being commemorated. Yet an obsession with memory blinds us to the abuses of memory and to the uses of forgetting. [more]


Abdolkarim Soroush

On Reason

Reason's greatest rival is not religion, but revolution, writes Iranian philosopher Abdolkarim Soroush. "The first resource that is squandered in a revolution is rationality and the last thing that returns is rationality. If it ever returns." [more]


Claus Leggewie

Equally criminal?

Totalitarian experience and European memory

Political differences between European member states can be worked out only if a "European memory" is developed. The difficulty lies in paying due respect to the memory of the crimes both of Nazism and of Soviet totalitarianism while avoiding a hierarchy of competing victim groups. [more]


Constance DeVereaux, Martin Griffin

International, global, transnational: Just a matter of words?

Does a threat to the legacy of the international age lurk in the term "transnational"? [more]


Jurij Dobriakov

Experimental electronic music and sound art in Lithuania

Drone, glitch, clicks'n'cuts... Lithuania has a varied electronic music scene whose influences are global. An overview. [more]


Michelle Provoost

New towns on the Cold War frontier

How modern urban planning was exported as an instrument in the battle for the developing world

The New Towns designed by Constantinos Doxiadis were supposed to inculcate democracy in the Developing World. Today, these urban neighbourhoods have become something quite different to what the architect anticipated: Baghdad's Sadr City being a striking example. [more]


Alphonso Lingis

Ethics in the globalized war

With hi-tech weaponry reducing the risk of battlefield casualties -- at least on the side of those owning it -- traditional warrior virtues have become the preserve of the lone suicide attacker. [more]


Artur Klinau

Minsk: The Sun City of Dreams

Gateway to the communist empire or stage set utopia? The architects of Minsk's "imperial style" didn't have the city's residents in mind, writes Artur Klinau. [more]


Vytautas Kavolis

Civilization theory and collective identity in the postmodern-globalized era

In a prescient essay from 1988, the late Lithuanian sociologist Vytautas Kavolis argues for the centrality of the concept of "civilization" in debates on postmodern global conditions. [more]


Vytautas Kavolis

Modernization, globality, and nationalism as cultural endeavours

An essay by the late Lithuanian-American sociologist arguing that the idea of the nation retains its validity alongside processes of modernization and globalization. [more]


Audronis Liuga

The hunger for ideas on the glutted theatre market

Consumer-led theatre policy has brought a decline in standards. Today, central Europe's most creative directors are asking some fundamental questions about the nature of theatre. [more]


Steven Schroeder


"The only way to speak of the whole is to learn to say nothing." How literature and philosophy, from Kierkegaard to Woolf, have approached the unspeakable. [more]


Stasys Katauskas

Belarus: Hopes for democracy and doubts about national identity

Hopes for democracy in Belarus will remain unfulfilled until a clear national ideology acceptable to the whole of society arises as an alternative to the prevailing Russophilia, says Lithuanian commentator Stasys Katauskas. [more]


Laima Kreivyte

Art criticism in practice: Art theory recycled?

Faced with the commercialization of art criticism, contemporary eastern European art critics must become activists, reclaiming public space for debate. [more]


Alfred Erich Senn

Baltic battleground

Protests in Estonia about Russian war memorials are the latest expression of a fiercely independent Baltic identity. Hostility towards Russia has simmered in the Baltic countries since the beginning of the Soviet occupation in 1944, following four years of brutal Nazi occupation. [more]


Ramune Marcinkeviciute

The energy of transit

Theatre in non-traditional spaces

Performances in disused industrial buildings, prisons, foyers, or on the street: in central and eastern Europe, experimental theatre is booming like in western Europe in the 1970s. [more]


Giedre Jankeviciute

The art critic as art historian and sociologist

The Lithuanian experience

Where does the art critic fit in the current "crisis of criticism"? A look at the situation in Lithuania as a model for worldwide trends in art criticism. [more]


Violeta Davoliute, Natalie Zemon Davis

Babel is not the last word

A conversation with Natalie Zemon Davis

"What I care about is having found ways to get evidence for and tell the stories of people often passed unnoticed or treated as a statistic -- to make their stories speak to bigger issues in historical life and change." [more]


Tomas Kavaliauskas

The demiurge of the European Union

The demiurge of Europe is in thrall to the erratic forces of realpolitik. A platonic look at the future of the EU. [more]


Leonidas Donskis

The unbearable lightness of change

On political fatalism and the challenge facing Lithuanian intellectuals and artists. [more]


Christoph Kleßmann

Dealing with the recent past

The tensions between memory and history

The variety of victims' personal memories does not warrant an "anything goes" approach in historical accounts of the more recent European dictatorships. [more]


Almantas Samalavicius

National identity, culture and globalisation

Lithuania wakes up to a new social and cultural reality

In the academic and intellectual debate in Lithuania, globalisation and Europeanisation are often regarded as deadly threats to the national culture, an "evil mission". Almantas Samalavicius looks at the arguments and proposes a completely different concept of identity. [more]


Daiva Tamosaityte

The price of boredom

Daiva Tamosaityte's view on the past and future of a united Europe. [more]


Almantas Samalavicius

Europe's East as spiritual space

Greek philosophy, Roman law and Christianity. Are these the only cornerstones of European culture? [more]


Rein Raud

Artistic freedom, the safety valve

The concept of freedom has moved from an abstract idea to more down-to earth, practical matters. [more]


Sarunas Nakas

A history of Lithuanian minimalism

The renewal of Lithuanian music after 1944. [more]


Laurynas Katkus

Stopping by the roadside

A word of thanks to French geographers

Thoughts about Eastern and Western Europe recorded in Vilnius, 'not far' from the geographical centre of Europe. [more]


Almantas Samalavicius

Intellectuals in post-communist Lithuania

How has the social and political standing of intellectuals changed? [more]


Virginijus Savukynas

A society model according to President Paksas

Lithuania is getting ready for the PR-age

The lasting crisis of President Rolandas Paksas calls for an analysis of Lithuania's political and social life. [more]


Almantas Samalavicius

Memory and amnesia in a postcommunist society

Dealing with the legacy of the communist past in Lithuania. [more]


Egle Wittig-Marcinkeviciute

On the concept of the collaborator

Towards a definition of the "collaborator" during the Soviet era. [more]


Tomas Kavaliauskas

Visegrad, Nato and EU

The difficult balancing acts of the new EU member states. [more]


Steven Schroeder

America talking to itself

A note on American philosophy

Has American philosophical thought lost its relevance by becoming too self-obsessed? [more]


Audrys Juozas Backis

Renouvellement de l'identité culturelles de la nation lituanienne: Rôle de l'église

Vilnius' archbishop Backis questions national identity in a changing society and explores the possible role of the church. [more]


Edvardas Gudavicius, Laima Kanopkiene, Bronys Savukynas

Historical choice: Europe or gray zone?

Laima Kanopkiene and Bronys Savukynas talk to Prof. Edvardas Gudavicius.

A discussion portraying Lithuania's mood before the EU-referendum. [more]


Wim van Rooy

Europe without an end

A provocative discussion of the conflict between cultural relativism and universalism. [more]


Andrius Bielskis

The European Union: A danger to the nation state and national identity?

Negative sentiments in Lithuania against the EU has led to comparisons between the EU and the former Soviet Union. But are they justified? [more]


Audrone Zukauskaite

Transgression in a sentimental style

Pedro Almodovar's weakness for kitsch. [more]


Leonidas Donskis

George Orwell: The anatomy of fanaticism and hatred

On the virtues and possibilities of 'liberal' nationalism. [more]


Almantas Samalavicius

The burden of freedom

Lithuanian media during the transition

A decade into its existence as an independent state, has the Lithuanian media learned how to make use of its newly found freedom? [more]


Norman Lillegard

Spirit and the end of art

Has the end of art arrived? Norman Lillegard reflects on philosophical thoughts about art and searches for the spirit in it. [more]



Articles published in the partner section

Tomas Venclova

Vilnius: The city as object of nostalgia

Lithuania's capital is close to the heart of many different groups and nationalities who have at one time or another called it "home". Better that they unite in their love of the city than fight for isolated fragments of its magical, multi-layered past, writes Tomas Venclova. [more]


Richard Noyce

Print techtonics

The position of printmaking within the contemporary visual arts has shifted and the hegemony of painting and sculpture within the category of "fine art" is at last being broken. [more]


Rasa Vasinauskaite

Lithuanian theatre in 1990-1999

A sociological study

In looking at the context of Lithuanian theatre in the 1990s, Rasa Vasinauskaite looks back at the aesthetic experience accumulated in preceding decades. [more]


Alvydas Nikzentaitis

Eastern Lithuania in Lithuanian culture of memory and politics

The problem of relations between historian and creator of memory



Mikael M. Karlsson

Can history be a science?

A tentative answer to a complex question. [more]


Andrius Martinkus

A culture of differences

Europe's spiritual and cultural foundations. [more]


Andrius Bielskis

Lietuviai - provincialai ar pilieciai?



Andrius Bielskis

Dar karta apie nacionalini identiteta




Focal points     click for more

Debating solidarity in Europe
In the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, questions of inequality and solidarity have become intertwined. Over the past year, however, questions of solidarity have also been central in connection to the treatment of refugees and migrants. [more]

Ukraine: Beyond conflict stories
Follow the critical, informed and nuanced voices that counter the dominant discourse of crisis concerning Ukraine. A media exchange project linking Ukrainian independent media with "alternative" media in Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Greece. [more]

Russia in global dialogue
In the two decades after the end of the Cold War, intellectual interaction between Russia and Europe has intensified. It has not, however, prompted a common conversation. The focal point "Russia in global dialogue" seeks to fuel debate on democracy, society and the legacy of empire. [more]

Ukraine in European dialogue
Post-revolutionary Ukrainian society displays a unique mix of hope, enthusiasm, social creativity, collective trauma of war, radicalism and disillusionment. Two years after the country's uprising, the focal point "Ukraine in European dialogue" takes stock. [more]

Culture and the commons
Across Europe, citizens are engaging in new forms of cultural cooperation while developing alternative and participatory democratic practices. The commons is where cultural and social activists meet a broader public to create new ways of living together. [more]

2016 Jean Améry Prize collection
To coincide with the awarding of the 2016 Jean Améry Prize for European essay writing, Eurozine publishes essays by authors nominated for the prize, including by a representative selection of Eurozine partner journals. [more]

The politics of privacy
The Snowden leaks and the ensuing NSA scandal made the whole world debate privacy and data protection. Now the discussion has entered a new phase - and it's all about policy. A focal point on the politics of privacy: claiming a European value. [more]

Beyond Fortress Europe
The fate of migrants attempting to enter Fortress Europe has triggered a new European debate on laws, borders and human rights. A focal point featuring reportage alongside articles on policy and memory. With contributions by Fabrizio Gatti, Seyla Benhabib and Alessandro Leogrande. [more]

Vacancies at Eurozine     click for more

Eurozine is seeking an Online Editor and Social Media Manager for its office in Vienna.

Preferred starting date: February 2017.
Applications deadline: 31 January 2017.

Conferences     click for more

Eurozine emerged from an informal network dating back to 1983. Since then, European cultural magazines have met annually in European cities to exchange ideas and experiences. Around 100 journals from almost every European country are now regularly involved in these meetings.
Mobilizing for the Commons
The 27th European Meeting of Cultural Journals
Gdańsk, 4-6 November 2016
The Eurozine conference 2016 in Gdańsk framed the general topic of solidarity with a focus on mobilizing for the commons. The event took place in the European Solidarity Centre in Gdańsk and thus linked contemporary debate to the history of a broad, non-violent, anti-communist social movement which has started in the city's shipyard in 1980. [more]

Support Eurozine     click for more

If you appreciate Eurozine's work and would like to support our contribution to the establishment of a European public sphere, see information about making a donation.

Eurozine BLOG

On the Eurozine BLOG, editors and Eurozine contributors comment on current affairs and events. What's behind the headlines in the world of European intellectual journals?
In memoriam: Ales Debeljak (1961-2016)
On 28 January 2016, Ales Debeljak died in a car crash in Slovenia. He will be much missed as an agile and compelling essayist, a formidable public speaker and a charming personality. [more]

Time to Talk     click for more

Time to Talk, a network of European Houses of Debate, has partnered up with Eurozine to launch an online platform. Here you can watch video highlights from all TTT events, anytime, anywhere.
Neda Deneva, Constantina Kouneva, Irina Nedeva and Yavor Siderov
Does migration intensify distrust in institutions?
How do migration and institutional mistrust relate to one another? As a new wave of populism feeds on and promotes fears of migration, aggrandising itself through the distrust it sows, The Red House hosts a timely debate with a view to untangling the key issues. [more]

Editor's choice     click for more

Jürgen Habermas, Michaël Foessel
Critique and communication: Philosophy's missions
Decades after first encountering Anglo-Saxon perspectives on democracy in occupied postwar Germany, Jürgen Habermas still stands by his commitment to a critical social theory that advances the cause of human emancipation. This follows a lifetime of philosophical dialogue. [more]

Literature     click for more

Karl Ove Knausgĺrd
Out to where storytelling does not reach
To write is to write one's way through the preconceived and into the world on the other side, to see the world as children can, as fantastic or terrifying, but always rich and wide-open. Karl Ove Knausgĺrd on creating literature. [more]

Jonathan Bousfield
Growing up in Kundera's Central Europe
Jonathan Bousfield talks to three award-winning novelists who spent their formative years in a Central Europe that Milan Kundera once described as the kidnapped West. It transpires that small nations may still be the bearers of important truths. [more]

Literary perspectives
The re-transnationalization of literary criticism
Eurozine's series of essays aims to provide an overview of diverse literary landscapes in Europe. Covered so far: Croatia, Sweden, Austria, Estonia, Ukraine, Northern Ireland, Slovenia, the Netherlands and Hungary. [more]

Debate series     click for more

Europe talks to Europe
Nationalism in Belgium might be different from nationalism in Ukraine, but if we want to understand the current European crisis and how to overcome it we need to take both into account. The debate series "Europe talks to Europe" is an attempt to turn European intellectual debate into a two-way street. [more]

Multimedia     click for more
Multimedia section including videos of past Eurozine conferences in Vilnius (2009) and Sibiu (2007). [more]

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