Latest Articles


22.10.2014
Nicole Gnesotto

There's no such thing as political globalization

How to explain the international explosion of tribal, mafia-style, dictatorial and terrorist violence? Nicole Gnesotto says it's down to the lack of "strategic globalization" on the political field, in sharp contrast to economic globalization's triumph. [ more ]

22.10.2014
Fréderic Neyrat

Critique of geo-constructivism

20.10.2014
Geert Lovink, César Rendueles

We do not prefer Facebook

15.10.2014
Eurozine Review

This revolutionary moment

New Issues


20.10.2014

Esprit | 10/2014

15.10.2014

Transit | 45 (2014)

Maidan - Die unerwartete Revolution [Maidan - The unexpected revolution]

Eurozine Review


15.10.2014
Eurozine Review

This revolutionary moment

"Index" looks into the future of journalism; "Transit" keeps alive the memory of the Maidan; in "Syn og Segn", climate optimist Kristin Halvorsen calls for a global price tag on pollution; "Kulturos barai" talks to urban ecologist Warren Karlenzig; "Rigas Laiks" congratulates Reykjavik's first anarchist mayor; "Merkur" discusses photography and the definition of artistic value; "La Revue nouvelle" braces itself for more European political deadlock; "Kritiikki" profiles Russian émigré author Sergei Dovlatov; and "Nova Istra" remembers the Croatian émigré poet Viktor Vida.

17.09.2014
Eurozine Review

Independence in an age of interdependence

03.09.2014
Eurozine Review

Was Crimea a preliminary exercise?

06.08.2014
Eurozine Review

What are you doing here?

23.07.2014
Eurozine Review

The world's echo system



http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2011-05-02-newsitem-en.html
http://mitpress.mit.edu/0262025248
http://www.eurozine.com/about/who-we-are/contact.html
http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2009-12-02-newsitem-en.html

My Eurozine


If you want to be kept up to date, you can subscribe to Eurozine's rss-newsfeed or our Newsletter.

Articles
Share |


Financing cultural journals: The Turkish case

Osman Deniztekin introduces a survey of Turkish journals that "Varlik" conducted in autumn 2012. Like their European counterparts, Turkish journals need public support. However, they are far more wary of risking their independence by receiving government funding.

Varlik celebrates its eightieth anniversary in 2013. Between the first issue, a 16-page black and white journal typeset by hand, printed only five years after Turkey's switch to the Latin script, and the partially coloured, digitally published 112-page issue 1263, almost four generations have passed. Only five or six other journals in the Eurozine network are of a comparable vintage; most others were first issued after the war, and a good number of others are even more recent. The network journals, numbering around 80, have a vast diversity of backgrounds, but their missions and problems – particularly financing problems – are very similar. We had the opportunity to observe differences and similarities first hand and place our own journal and our cultural environment in a global perspective at the annual Eurozine assembly held in Hamburg in September 2012.

Financing European cultural journals


Like other types of cultural organization reliant on public funds, cultural journals throughout Europe have felt the impact of recession. In addition to funding cuts, journals are also having to negotiate the upheavals taking place in the print sector. Through a European survey of financing for cultural journals, Eurozine takes stock of the situation of the network, in order to communicate its experiences internally and to others who hold a stake in European cultural policy today. [more]

Inspired by the Eurozine initiative, our long-standing partner "Varlik" conducted a survey of Turkish journals. Like their European counterparts, Turkish journals need public support. However, they are far more wary of risking their independence by receiving government funding. [more]
The survey that Varlik conducted among the editors of a dozen or so national or local journals, which have relatively distinct structures and content, gives us a profile of cultural publishing within Turkey. The feedback given by our colleagues abroad provides us a great opportunity to compare journal publishing in Turkey and around Europe.

There are almost no media companies left untouched by the financial crisis that has been going on since 2008. But those suffering the most appear to be cultural organizations that are more or less dependent on public funding. In other words, budget cuts brought by austerity policies hit those items that are at the bottom of the shopping list. The degree to which publishers of cultural journals are affected in this context differs according to the structure of the society they operate in.

For example, journals published in social welfare countries that have historically provided more support to cultural institutions (such as the Nordic and Baltic countries) feel the impact of the crisis less than their counterparts published in southern countries where the free market is more pervasive, regardless of the size of their respective countries.

Ord&Bild and Glänta, published in Sweden – which has a population of around nine million – continue to receive two-thirds of their annual expenses out of a two million euro budget of an agency established years ago to promote cultural production. Vikerkaar, published in the former Soviet state of Estonia with a population of two million, still receives support for 70 per cent of its expenses out of a one-and-a-half-million euro annual budget allocated to a similar institution in the 2000s.

On the other hand, Wespennest in Austria has had to reduce its annual number of issues from four to two due to a decline in advertising revenue, even when public funding (direct financial support or advertising) accounts for two-thirds of its budget. Cuts in postal rate discounts have had a serious impact on marketing costs.

Publishers in the former Eastern Bloc, which could benefit from public support to the extent that they practised self-censorship prior to the fall of the Iron Curtain and resist the expansion of the capitalist free market system adopted by their countries to the cultural sphere, see that their public support is on the decline with the financial crisis in Europe and the shift in social values. Take Slovenia's Sodobnost, which has been published since 1933: The journal's annual public support of 80,000 euros received from a public agency diminished as the new central right coalition in the country implemented austerity measures (meanwhile, the annual budget of this agency is no more than the cost of keeping two Slovenian soldiers in Afghanistan). Similar cultural funding cuts are seen in Poland and the Czech Republic: Host (Czech Republic), eighty per cent of whose budget is provided by the ministry of culture, says that the total funding available to journals has been reduced to half over four years, while the Polish ResPublica Nova, which receives seventy per cent of its budget from public sources, says that there are drastic reductions in funds available to journals.

Another example is the UK, where the welfare state has been replaced by the free market recently. Mute magazine, sixty per cent of whose budget was subsidized, lost annual public funding of 73,000 pounds, and has had to seek alternative financing and project-based funding to survive.

Although Greece is an EU member, its social structure is more akin to Turkey's than to that of its northern neighbours, and the journal Intellectum says that the ministry of Culture provides funding in theory, but "pulling strings" is necessary to make use of this funding.

Unlike the German Blätter für deutsche und internationale Politik, which does not need financing thanks to an adequate revenue it enjoys, these journals and other Eurozine members that depend on public funding to survive are having to find different ways to cope with the financial difficulties accompanying the post-crisis environment and the new global context. Most believe that the time of the printed journal is not yet at an end, but moving on to digital publishing is needed to ensure the sustainability of their mission, which is to provide in-depth analysis and critique on matters that the mainstream media ignores or does not give enough coverage to.

There is a marked distinction between journal publishers in Turkey and their colleagues in the West: Publishers in Turkey are as much in need of public support as (if not more than) their Western counterparts, but all of them emphasize the fact that receiving government funding would mean losing independence. The fact that Turkish journals receive almost no public funding (discounting subscriptions of public libraries as a source of hidden support) may be due to both cultural policies and this "allergy" of civil society towards bureaucracy and politicians.

This is not without reason: even at a time when Turkey is supposedly on the path to becoming more "civilian", two copies of all issues of periodical journals must be submitted to the local prosecutor's office and six copies of every new book has to be submitted to the central public libraries within 15 days of printing; otherwise you are looking at a fine between 1000 and 5000 TL (between around 500 and 2200 euros). The (official) justification for the latter regulation is the preservation of printed publications as part of the national cultural heritage. You can guess the justification for the former yourself.

In the end, the cultural journal landscape in Turkey ranges from journals that are "printed when they find the money" to "prestige" publications by financial institutions or companies not related to journal publishing. The marked similarities between publishers in the West and in Turkey are their conviction that journals still serve a purpose in the age of the digital media and popular culture when even the mainstream media is receding, and their dependence on more or less volunteer (unpaid) work to survive.

 



Published 2013-03-29


Original in English
Contributed by Varlik
© Osman Deniztekin / Varlik
© Eurozine
 

Support Eurozine     click for more

If you appreciate Eurozine's work and would like to support our contribution to the establishment of a European public sphere, see information about making a donation.

Focal points     click for more

Russia in global dialogue

http://www.eurozine.com/comp/focalpoints/eurocrisis.html
In the two decades after the end of the Cold War, intellectual interaction between Russia and Europe has intensified. It has not, however, prompted a common conversation. The focal point "Russia in global dialogue" seeks to fuel debate on democracy, society and the legacy of empire. [more]

Ukraine in focus

http://www.eurozine.com/comp/focalpoints/publicsphere.html
Ten years after the Orange Revolution, Ukraine is in the throes of yet another major struggle. Eurozine provides commentary on events as they unfold and further articles from the archive providing background to the situation in today's Ukraine. [more]

The ends of democracy

http://www.eurozine.com/comp/focalpoints/democracy.html
At a time when the global pull of democracy has never been stronger, the crisis of democracy has become acute. Eurozine has collected articles that make the problems of democracy so tangible that one starts to wonder if it has a future at all, as well as those that return to the very basis of the principle of democracy. [more]

The EU: Broken or just broke?

http://www.eurozine.com/comp/focalpoints/eurocrisis.html
Brought on by the global economic recession, the eurocrisis has been exacerbated by serious faults built into the monetary union. Contributors discuss whether the EU is not only broke, but also broken -- and if so, whether Europe's leaders are up to the task of fixing it. [more]

Time to Talk     click for more

Time to Talk, a network of European Houses of Debate, has partnered up with Eurozine to launch an online platform. Here you can watch video highlights from all TTT events, anytime, anywhere.
Dessislava Gavrilova, Jo Glanville et al.
The role of literature houses in protecting the space for free expression

http://www.eurozine.com/timetotalk/european-literature-houses-meeting-2014/
This summer, Time to Talk partner Free Word, London hosted a debate on the role that literature houses play in preserving freedom of expression both in Europe and globally. Should everyone get a place on the podium? Also those representing the political extremes? [more]

Eurozine BLOG

On the Eurozine BLOG, editors and Eurozine contributors comment on current affairs and events. What's behind the headlines in the world of European intellectual journals?
Simon Garnett
Britain flouts the European Court of Justice

http://www.eurozine.com/blog/
The UK has passed legislation on data retention that flouts European concerns about privacy. The move demonstrates extraordinary arrogance not only towards the Court of Justice of the European Union but towards the principle of parliamentary deliberation in Britain, writes Simon Garnett. [more]

Vacancies at Eurozine     click for more

There are currently no positions available.

Editor's choice     click for more

William E Scheuerman
Civil disobedience for an age of total surveillance
The case of Edward Snowden

http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2014-04-18-scheuerman-en.html
Earlier civil disobedients hinted at our increasingly global condition. Snowden takes it as a given. But, writes William E. Scheuerman, in lieu of an independent global legal system in which Snowden could defend his legal claims, the Obama administration should treat him with clemency. [more]

Literature     click for more

Olga Tokarczuk
A finger pointing at the moon

http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2014-01-16-tokarczuk-en.html
Our language is our literary destiny, writes Olga Tokarczuk. And "minority" languages provide a special kind of sanctuary too, inaccessible to the rest of the world. But, there again, language is at its most powerful when it reaches beyond itself and starts to create an alternative world. [more]

Piotr Kiezun, Jaroslaw Kuisz
Literary perspectives special: Witold Gombrowicz

http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2013-08-16-kuisz-en.html
The recent publication of the private diary of Witold Gombrowicz provides unparalleled insight into the life of one of Poland's great twentieth-century novelists and dramatists. But this is not literature. Instead: here he is, completely naked. [more]

Literary perspectives
The re-transnationalization of literary criticism

http://www.eurozine.com/comp/literaryperspectives.html
Eurozine's series of essays aims to provide an overview of diverse literary landscapes in Europe. Covered so far: Croatia, Sweden, Austria, Estonia, Ukraine, Northern Ireland, Slovenia, the Netherlands and Hungary. [more]

Debate series     click for more

Europe talks to Europe

http://www.eurozine.com/comp/europetalkstoeurope.html
Nationalism in Belgium might be different from nationalism in Ukraine, but if we want to understand the current European crisis and how to overcome it we need to take both into account. The debate series "Europe talks to Europe" is an attempt to turn European intellectual debate into a two-way street. [more]

Conferences     click for more

Eurozine emerged from an informal network dating back to 1983. Since then, European cultural magazines have met annually in European cities to exchange ideas and experiences. Around 100 journals from almost every European country are now regularly involved in these meetings.
Law and Border. House Search in Fortress Europe
The 26th European Meeting of Cultural Journals
Conversano, 3-6 October 2014

http://www.eurozine.com/comp/conversano2014.html
Taking place in southern Italy, not far from Lampedusa, this year's Eurozine conference will address both EU refugee and immigration policies and intellectual partnerships across the Mediterranean. Confirmed speakers include Italian investigative journalist Fabrizio Gatti and Moroccan feminist and Nobel Peace Prize nominee Rita El Khayat. [more]

Multimedia     click for more

http://www.eurozine.com/comp/multimedia.html
Multimedia section including videos of past Eurozine conferences in Vilnius (2009) and Sibiu (2007). [more]


powered by publick.net