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Don Kishoti n politikn e shekullit XX


N nj konference qe u be me pas e famshme, ne vitin 1939, ne Nju Jork, Thomas Mann-i, duke folur per nj grindje midis poetit te madh pers Firduisit, autorit te Librit te Mbreterve (Shahname) dhe Shahut - pune honoraresh, pasi Shahu i kishte premtuar nj sasi floriri per poemen e vet dhe pastaj ia kishte mohuar,- thoshte se gjera te permasave te tilla mund t'u bejne vaki vetem poeteve te medhenj epike.

Ne te gjithe i dime- i kemi mesuar qe ne shkolle, - grindjet midis studenteve greke per vendlindjen e Homerit. Eshte i njohur diskutimi nese qe Shekspiri vete ai qe i shkroi veprat e tij apo qe Baconi. Nj gje pak a shume e ngjashme ka ndodhur me Cervantesin ne nj vend te Ballkanit, te cilin ndoshta nuk e njihni. Diskutohet se ku qe burgosur Cervantes, ne Algjeri apo atje atje ne Ballkan. Me sa duket kjo puna e burgimit te shkrimtareve vazhdon t'u ngjalle shume kureshti popujve sot dhe mendoj se eshte domethenes fakti qe edhe pas kaq shume vitesh ne Gadishullin Ballkanik, flitet ende per burgimin e Cervantes-it, madje dhe pa ia ditur sakte emrin shkrimtarit.

Nj folklorist shqiptar, duke folur per legjenda dhe kronika te vjetra mesjetare, pershkroi, perpara pak kohesh ne shtyp, disa histori per Cervantes-in, qe kishin kaluar nga goja ne goje, duke hedhur tezen se ka mundesi qe Cervantes-i nuk ka qene i burgosur ne Algjeri, por ne nj qytet midis Shqiperise dhe Malit te Zi. Ky studiues e bazon tezen e tij ne rrefeja pleqsh, te cilet perqendroheshin ne faktin se robi ishte nj spanjoll shume i ditur, per te cilin u pagua nj sasi e madhe parash qe ta liron nga burgu. Emri i tij del, ka raste Cervantes, ka raste Servet apo Sarvet. Dhe te gjitha rrefenjat perkojne ne nj pike, qe ky rob i burgosur, kishte miq ne Spanj dhe ata, qe nga larg, donin ta lironin me cdo kusht. Studiuesi pohon se ka fort te ngjare qe Cervantes-i te kete qene rob ne Ballkan, sepse bregdeti ballkanas eshte shume i thyer dhe plot me guva e shpella te pershtatshme per piratet. Sidoqofte, edhe ne mos qofte e vertete historia, eshte teper emocionues per nj shkrimtar fakti, qe pleqte e Ballkanit, qe jane analfabete, te ruajne ne kujtese fatin dhe jeten e ketij njriu. S'duhet harruar qe keta pleq mbajne shume drama ne kujtesen e tyre dhe, ne kohen qe linden keto rrefenja, Cervantes-i nuk ishte botuar ne Ballkan. Mendoj se eshte domethenese qe njrez injorante te mbajne ne kujtese nj shkrimtar, ndonese kjo ndodh fort rralle.

Njrezimi ka nj ndjeshmeri shume te vecante per te zgjedhur se c'njrez do te perdore per krijimet e tij, me cfare njrezish do t'i mbruje legjendat e veta. Sado e cuditshme qe te duket, lidhja midis Cervantes-it dhe pleqve te Ballkanit ka nj logjike te brendshme. Nj logjike e brendshme e prek kete lidhje dhe e pohon ate.

Kjo, nga ana e saj ka te beje me temen qe do te trajtoje me tej, me faktin qe udhetimi i Don Kishotit nuk eshte nj udhetim hapesinor, por ben pjese ne udhetimin e brendshem te njrezimit. Udhetimi i Don Kishotit ndodh ne kohen e udhetimeve te medha, sic eshte udhetimi me i famshem dhe me me buje i historise se njrezimit: zbulimi i Amerikes. Nuk mund te kete, eshte e pamundur qe ne histori te kete nj zbulim me te madh se ky.

Bota, toka, globi tokesor u dyfishua. Por ka ndodhur dicka e habitshme: ky zbulim kaq i madh pothuaj se nuk la gjurme ne letersine boterore. Domethene, nuk i pasuroi faqet e saj. E, megjithate, udhetimi i nj marroku nga nj fshat tjeter te Spanjs, nj udhetim qe nuk i ka sjelle atij asgje dhe qe, nuk kishte pike rendesie per njrezimin, qe nuk i ka sjelle atij asgje dhe qe, ndoshta, as qe ka ndodhur fare, i jep njrezimit nj nga kryeveprat me te medha letrare. A eshte kjo nj kundershti apo ne logjiken e gjerave? Une besoj se nuk eshte kundershti. Gjithmone, kur kane ndodhur zbulime ne bote, zbulime te medha, eshte shtruar ideja se keto zbulime do te transformonin letersine. Te fundit jane udhetimet, zbulimet kozmike dhe sidomos fakti qe njriu ka shkelur ne Hene. Per shume njrez poezia po merrte fund ne bote, sepse Hena, nj nga frymezueset e poezise, tashme humbte misterin, meqe po shkelej nga njriu. Ne e dime se kjo nuk ndodhi. E, megjithate, me kalimin e kohes, kane kaluar tashme shume vjet, udhetimi i Don Kishotit i takon ketij kalendari te fshehte. Prandaj ka ndikuar ne letersine boterore me teper se shpikja e lokomotives, me teper se zbulimet e Kristofor Kolombit, me teper se anijet kozmike. Ndonese duhet thene se ky personazh i madh i historise se njrezimit nuk ka bere shpesh inkursione te gjalla ne jeten njrezore. Jeta e ketij personazhi eshte e dyfishte: ai ben pjese njkohesisht ne trazimin e brendshem te njrezimit, por edhe ne jeten e jashtme te tij. Me pas do te mundohem te shpjegoj se perse duke dale ne boten e jashtme, kjo figure eshte demtuar jashtezakonisht. Perpara kesaj, do te hap nj paranteze ne lidhje me perkthimin e Don Kishotit ne nj vend te Ballkanit, ne vendin tim, ne Shqiperi. Eshte nj fakt tipik qe ky personazh hyn i gjalle ne histori. Don Kishoti u perkthye ne shqip nga peshkopi i Shqiperise. Ky peshkop ishte ne lufte me mbretin e ardhshem te Shqiperise. Peshkopi perpiqej ta permbyste monarkun. Per t'u dhene guxim njrezve e, ne rradhe te pare, vetes, ne fillim perktheu Hamletin dhe Makbethin dhe arriti vertet ta permbyste mbretin. Me pas, mbreti rrezoi perseri peshkopin dhe u permbys situata, dhe ndersa peshkopi ishte ngujuar dhe tejet i trishtuar, iu vu perkthimit te Don Kishotit. Ne parathenien me te cilen peshkopi shoqeron librin, thoshte se Don Kishoti do te Kuptohet ne Ballkan me mire se ne cdo vend tjeter. Ai e gjeti nj lidhje midis marredhenieve te Spanjs me hapesirat amerikane dhe lidhjeve te njrezve te Ballkanit me Perandorine Otamane, vetem se ketu fati eshte i perkundert. Ndersa Spanja pushtoi hapesirat e medha amerikane, popujt e Ballkanit u pushtuan nga nj tjeter force, qe vinte nga hapesirat e medha. Eshte njlloj sikur Spanja te pushtohej nga indianet e amerikes. E, megjithate, ndodhi pak a shume e njjta gje: Perandoria Otomane, qe ishte jashtezakonisht e madhe, krijoi marredhenie aventureske me popujt e Ballkanit. Ajo kishte qindra mijra ushtare te nj niveli te larte, ushtare te bindur, teper te bindur, porse i mungonin oficeret. Kishte nevoje per cmendurine ballkanase. Ne kete menyre shpjegohet qe ushtria otomane e krijoi eliten e saj ushtarake kryesisht me oficere ballkanas, sidomos shqiptare. Kur u shperbe kjo perandori, te gjithe keta oficere dhe mercenare mbeten pa pune. Dhe ketu e gjen paralelizmin peshkopi midis ketyre njrezve dhe Don Kishotit dhe Sanco Pancos, qe nuk kane shkuar ne Amerike, por bredhin poshte e perpjete dhe fillojne te enderrojne kthimin e te kaluares. Peshkopi shqiptar thote se te gjitha vendet e Ballkanit ne shekullin XX jane mbushur me Don Kishote, por ne po shohim se hija e tij vazhdon te shfaqet edhe sot ne gadishull. Figura e Don Kishotit vazhdon te perdoret shume shpesh tani midis partive politike. Nuk ka force politike qe te mos kete akuzuar lideret perendimore si Don Kishote. Keta te fundit kane bere te njten gje duke akuzuar stalinistet si Don Kishote. E keshtu me rradhe, historia vazhdon. Ka disa jave, degjova ne fushaten elektorale presidenciale ne France qe njfare Philippe de Viller, perpara kamerave, e cilesuan si nj Don Kishot. Dhe sic e shikoni, Don Kishoti del i humbur ne te gjitha rastet, sepse ne te gjitha rastet popitikanet qe ia perdorin emrin jane nen nivelin e tij dhe nuk kane grime nga fisnikeria e tij.

Kjo eshte nj karakteristike mijevjecare e njrezimit. Besoj se dy pesonazhe te letersise dhe te botes, Prometeu dhe Don Kishoti, kane patur nj fat te perbashket, jane korigjuar, kane ndryshuar jane reformuar nga njrezimi. Ne pamje te pare, duket nj nder i madh qe i gjithe njrezimi merr pjese ne riberjen e nj personazhi, porse ky ndryshim, ky korrigjim mund te jete per mire ose per keq. Ne rastin e Prometeut, personazhi ka fituar dhe ne rastin e Don Kishotit ka humbur. Por ne te dyja rastet eshte dicka e jashtezakonshme qe njrezimi behet bashkeautor me shkrimtaret. Do te mundohem ta shpjegoj kete me thjesht. Le te marrim Prometeun: Prometeu nuk u krijua as nga legjenda dhe as nga Eskili ne kohen e tij, ashtu sic e njohim ne sot. Prometeu u pasuruar nga i gjithe njrezimi. Ai ka qene nj personazh shume i koklavitur se ai qe njohim tani. Prometeu arriti te merrej vesh me Zeusin, ndersa pjesa me e madhe e njrezimit kete fakt nuk e njh, domethene nuk e rinjh, e ka shmangur, ia ka bere nj korrigjim personazhit. Me nj fjale, e ka bere heroik Prometeun. Me Don Kishotin, sic thame me lart ndodh e kunderta, i humbet fisnikeria duke krahasuar me personazhet medioker. Schiller-i thoshte se perfytyronte korin e tragjedive antike si nj mur mbrojtes, si nj ledh qe e mbron artin nga nderhyrja e njrezve, qe nuk duhet ta prekin ate. Sipas tij, pjesemarrja e spektatoreve greke ne teater do ta kishte shkateruar ate. Natyrisht eshte populli ai qe mban te gjalle artin dhe tjeter gje eshte ta mbash te gjlle artin dhe tjeter gje te nderhysh per ta rregulluar, per ta korrigjuar, per ta riformuar. Sidoqofte, ekzistojne personazhe te medhenj, tek te cilet njrezimi ka nderhyre per t'i ndryshuar pikerisht per hir te popullaritetit te tyre. Nga ana tjeter, ka vepra temedha si Makbethi i Shekspirit; megjithate, Makbethi asnjhere nuk eshte kthyer ne nj figure popullore ne bote. Cuditerisht kjo ka ndodhur me shoqen e tij, Ledin Makbeth, e cila vitet e fundit eshte perdorur si figure krahasuese per disa nga grate e udheheqesve komuniste, sidomos per Chiang Chingun, vejushen e Mao Ce Dunit, dhe, Elena Causheskun.

Kjo tregon se mund te kete vepra te medha te njrezimit, si Makbethi, Fausti, Vellezerit Karamazov etj, personazhet e te cilave i perkasin vetem gjithesise se artit. Te tjere personazhe, si Prometeu apo Don Kishoti, dalin ne kete bote dhe pikerisht per shkak se kesaj daljeje vendosen perpara nj prove shume te veshtire. Besoj se Don Kishoti vazhdon te jete edhe sot nj personazh i pashpjeguar. Eshte e nevojshme te behet nj perpjekje, nj perpjekje e madhe nga te gjithe, per t'ia vene nderin ne vend, per ta ngritur serish ne vendin qe i takon. Nuk mund te lejohet qe Don Kishoti te perdore ne diskutimet politike. Historia e vertete e botes, ajo qe i intereson letersise dhe se ciles i perket Don Kishoti eshte, sic thame me lart, historia e brendshme e saj. Kalimi nga nj bote tek tjetra, me fjale te tjera, dalja ne klimen e eger te botes ku ne jetojme, sic eshte rasti i Don Kishotit, mund te kete rrjedhoja dramatike.


 



Published 2006-05-31


Original in Albanian
First published in Mehr Licht! 26 (2006)

Contributed by Mehr Licht!
© Ismail Kadare/Mehr Licht!
© Eurozine
 

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